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航空术语词典 Dictionary of Aeronautical Terms 上(12)

时间:2011-03-11 23:11来源:蓝天飞行翻译 作者:admin 点击:


additive (lubricating oil component). A chemical added to an engine lubricating oil to alter its basic characteristics.
Additives are used to prevent foaming, improve viscosity index, and increase corrosion inhibiting properties.
additive primary colors. Primary colors which can be mixed to produce other colors, but which cannot be formed by the mixing of colors. The additive primary colors used to produce color television images are red, green, and blue.
address (electronic computer). A binary numerical word used to designate a specific location in a computer memory where data is located.
Adel clamp. The registered trade name for a cushioned clamp used to attach fluid lines and wire bundles to an aircraft structure.
ADF (automatic direction finder). A piece of electronic navigation equipment which operates in the low- and medium-frequency bands.
ADF uses a directional loop antenna and a nondirectional sense antenna to find the direction to a radio station. This direction is shown on an instrument that looks much like the dial of a compass, with zero degrees representing the nose of the aircraft, rather than north. The needle on the ADF indicator shows the pilot the number of degrees clockwise from the nose of the aircraft to the radio station being received.
adherend. The surface to which an adhesive adheres.
adhesion. The tendency caused by intermolecular forces for matter to cling together.
adhesive. A material used to provide a bond between two surfaces by chemical means. The adhesive wets the surfaces, and as it dries, it pulls the surfaces tightly together.
adiabatic change. A physical change taking place within a material in which heat energy is neither added to the material nor taken from it.
For example, if a container of gas is compressed, with no heat energy added to it and none taken from it, the gas will become hotter — its temperature will rise. This is an adiabatic change.
adiabatic lapse rate (meteorology). The rate at which air cools as it is forced upward or warms as it sinks, if no heat energy is added to it and none is taken from it. Under standard conditions, the adiabatic lapse rate of dry air is 3°C (5.4°F) per thousand feet.
adiabatic process (meteorology). The process by which fixed relationships are maintained during changes in temperature, volume, and pressure in a body of air when heat is neither added to nor removed from it.
ADI fluid (antidetonation injection fluid). A mixture of water and methanol, which is injected into the carburetor of an aircraft reciprocating engine to prevent detonation when the engine is producing its maximum power.
The methanol is used primarily to prevent the water freezing at high altitude, and a small amount of water-soluble oil is added for corrosion prevention.
ADI system (antidetonation injection system). A system used with some of the large reciprocating engines in which a mixture of water and alcohol (methanol) is sprayed into the engine with the fuel when operating at extremely high power.
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