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航空术语词典 Dictionary of Aeronautical Terms 上(108)

时间:2011-03-11 23:11来源:蓝天飞行翻译 作者:admin 点击:


carburetor ice. Ice that forms inside the throat of a carburetor installed on an aircraft reciprocating engine. When air flows through the carburetor venturi, it speeds up, and both its pressure and temperature drop. When liquid fuel is discharged into the throat of the venturi, it vaporizes, and this change of state drops its temperature.
When the temperature of the air is low enough, moisture in the air condenses out and freezes. It is possible for carburetor ice to build up inside the venturi and restrict the air flowing into the engine enough to cause the engine to stop. Carburetor ice is normally prevented by heating the air before it enters the carburetor.
carburizing (steel heat treatment). A form of heat treatment of steel in which the surface absorbs extra carbon and becomes hard and brittle, while the center of the steel remains relatively soft and tough.
The part to be carburized is packed in a material containing a large amount of carbon (finely ground bone is often used) and is heated in a furnace until the correct amount of carbon is absorbed into the surface of the steel.
carburizing flame (oxy-acetylene welding). A flame produced by an oxy-acetylene torch when there is too much acetylene gas for the amount of oxygen being metered by the torch.
A carburizing flame, identified by a definite feather around the inner cone, is not normally used, because it adds carbon to the molten metal and makes the weld weaker than the metal being welded.
carcass (tire component). The layers of rubberized fabric that make up the body of an aircraft tire.
cardinal altitudes. Odd or even thousand-foot altitudes or flight levels.
cardinal heading (aircraft navigation). The heading of an aircraft along any of the four cardinal directions shown on a compass. The cardinal directions are North, East, South, and West.
cardioid microphone. A microphone that is directional in its ability to pick up sounds, picking up sounds in front of it while rejecting sounds behind it.
A cardioid microphone gets its name from the Greek word kardia, which means heart. The sound pickup pattern of a cardioid microphone is roughly in the shape of a heart.
caret (mathematics). A small inverted V (^) used to show the new location of the decimal in multiplication and division problems using decimal fractions.
cargo. Material transported in an airplane, ship, truck, or train.
Carnot cycle (energy release cycle). An ideal reversible, but unattainable, cycle of energy transformation that explains the operation of a perfect heat engine. The four events that occur in a Carnot cycle are:
1.  
An isothermal expansion of the working fluid from A to B. Heat energy is neither added to nor taken from the air. The temperature remains constant at T1.

2.  
An adiabatic expansion from B to C with the temperature changing from T1 to T2.

3.  
An isothermal compression from C to D at temperature T2.

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